Vehicle - Red Van - Child Safety.001When the outside temperature gets into the triple digits (100 degrees plus), it is clear that a child left in a “hot car” is at risk for serious medical problems and complications.  Even temperature lower than the triple digits can lead to serious permanent injuries,  it can only take a matter of minutes for the heat in a vehicle to get to a level that can put a child at risk for dehydration, hypothermia, and other complications.  We live in a fast paced world filled with distractions and tasks that keep us busy all day long.  In the hustle and bustle of the world that we live in, a child can be left behind in a hot vehicle, bus, or van by a parent, family member, family friend, day care center, summer camp, or school.   It is clear that 5 minutes of running into a store can turn into 15 minutes if you take a call or see a friend.  These minutes can be crucial to saving a life.  The better practice is to never leave a child unattended in a vehicle.
Here are some points to keep in mind:
*44 children died in hot cars in 2013;
*31 children died in hot cars in 2014;
*8 children (so far) died in hot cars in 2015;  and
*On even an 80 degree day – a child’s body temperature can reach fatal levels in a matter of minutes if left in a “hot car”.
Dr. Paul McPherson, a physician at St. Luke’s Children’s Hospital in Idaho, said children’s bodies absorb heat three to five times faster than adults and don’t disperse it as quickly.  See Heat Wave Dangers to Children Left in Hot Cars. 
This explains the days in which an adult seems to be sweating up a storm while the child does not seem to be sweating or hot at all.   Adults and child care providers should not judge the heat of the day or the environment by how the adult or child care provider feels.
The book titled – The ABCs of Child Injury – Legal Rights of the Injured Child – What Every Parent Should Know – has chapters on Automobile Accidents, Day Care Center Injuries, School Injuries, and other topics. You can get this book for free at The ABCs of Child Injury. 

gorgeous swimming pool side with colorful water mattress

Swimming Pool Drowings

Children are at risk for drowning incidents any time that children are near or in a swimming pool area or similar area like a lake, pond, water park, etc. . . .  As for residential swimming pools, it is important that pool owner and supervising adults keep a swimming pool out of the reach of children.  Certainly, a swimming pool owner, child care provider, and others watching child should following the applicable state and local laws; however, merely following the law will not prevent some incidents from happening.  There really is not substitute for common sense, supervision, or due diligence.

Florida enacted Chapter 515 – Residential Swimming Pool Safety Act as a measure to protect children. Pursuant to Section 515.29, Florida Statutes, a residential pool owner must comply with the following requirements:
515.29 Residential swimming pool barrier requirements.—

(1) A residential swimming pool barrier must have all of the following characteristics:
(a) The barrier must be at least 4 feet high on the outside.
(b) The barrier may not have any gaps, openings, indentations, protrusions, or structural components that could allow a young child to crawl under, squeeze through, or climb over the barrier.
(c) The barrier must be placed around the perimeter of the pool and must be separate from any fence, wall, or other enclosure surrounding the yard unless the fence, wall, or other enclosure or portion thereof is situated on the perimeter of the pool, is being used as part of the barrier, and meets the barrier requirements of this section.
(d) The barrier must be placed sufficiently away from the water’s edge to prevent a young child or medically frail elderly person who may have managed to penetrate the barrier from immediately falling into the water.
(2) The structure of an aboveground swimming pool may be used as its barrier or the barrier for such a pool may be mounted on top of its structure; however, such structure or separately mounted barrier must meet all barrier requirements of this section. In addition, any ladder or steps that are the means of access to an aboveground pool must be capable of being secured, locked, or removed to prevent access or must be surrounded by a barrier that meets the requirements of this section.
(3) Gates that provide access to swimming pools must open outward away from the pool and be self-closing and equipped with a self-latching locking device, the release mechanism of which must be located on the pool side of the gate and so placed that it cannot be reached by a young child over the top or through any opening or gap.
(4) A wall of a dwelling may serve as part of the barrier if it does not contain any door or window that opens to provide access to the swimming pool.
(5) A barrier may not be located in a way that allows any permanent structure, equipment, or similar object to be used for climbing the barrier.
A fence / barrier can prevent many drowning incidents from taking place; however, it should be noted that some children find ways under, over, and through fences because the lure of the water is so great. Small children lack safety awareness and good judgment.  Small children do not understand the dangers and risks of being around or in a swimming pool without proper adult supervision.  It just seems like play time for a child.  Unfortunately, children continue to drown in Florida pools.  A recent incident was reported in Lehigh Acres (Lee County) Florida. It was reported by the Gainesville Sun and other news outlets that a 4 year old boy drowned in a Southwest Florida swimming pool.  Law enforcement officials reported that the child used a lawn chair to climb over the pool fence.  The news report just contained a few details.  When a child dies unexpectedly, an autopsy is typically performed to see if there is another explanation for the cause and manner of death other than the drowning incident.  See Four Year Old Drowns in Southwest Florida Swimming Pool.
If a child dies from a drowning related incident at a day care center, summer camp, neighbor’s house, or even a relative’s house, there may be a cause of action to pursue even if there was a pool fence in place at the time of the incident.   It should be pointed out that under Florida law – a child under the age of 6 years old cannot be held negligent for his or her own actions.  Florida law recognizes that children in this age range do not have the ability to properly understand dangers OR act in a reasonably safe manner.  For children 6 years and older, the facts and circumstances must be evaluated to determine if there is a viable case or cause of action to pursue.  For instance, a case on behalf of a 7 year old is evaluated must differently than that of a 17 year old. 
The book titled – The ABCs of Child Injury – Legal Rights of the Injured Child – What Every Parent Should Know – has chapters on Swimming Pool and Water Park Injuries, Theme Park and Attraction Injuries, Day Care Center Injuries, School Injuries and other topics. You can get this book for free at  The ABCs of Child Injury.

medical_1000006509-120613intIn Florida, a child under the age of 6 years old cannot be held liable for his or her own negligence or carelessness.  This is the law in the State of Florida.  Why is this particular law in place?  The policy reasons behind this law is based on the known fact that young children lack safety awareness and lack good judgment especially when near something interesting or fun in appearance like a body of water, pool, playground, etc . . . .
Let’s take an example.  Let’s say that a 5 year old child is enrolled in a day care center.   The child walks into an unlocked janitor / cleaning supply closet.  While in the closet, the child sees some brightly colored blue jug.  The child opens the jugs and pours the chemicals over his or her head.  The child then sustains significant and painful burns that require an extended hospitalization and result in lifelong and permanent scarring to the face.  This is certainly a tragic incident; however it is an incident that is foreseeable and preventable.   The door should have been locked and all dangerous chemicals should have been kept out of the reach of the child. Furthermore, with constant and consistent supervision, the child would have been re-directed or kept from the area of danger.   This 5 year old child was injured due to a lack of supervision. The child cannot be faulted for his actions because he was under the age of 6 years old at the time of the incident.
For children 6 and older, a portion of the fault can be attributed to the child; however, the age and maturity of the child are considered for children 6 and older.  If the same incident happened with a 6 year old, it would be my opinion that all of the fault for this particular incident would still fall upon the Florida Day Care Center which failed to properly supervise this child.
Of course, the aforementioned incident involving chemical burns to a child is just one of many incidents that can happen at a Florida Day Care Center when there is a lack of proper safety precautions and supervision.   Here is another example of what can happen to a child when there is a lack of proper supervision.  It was reported that a child was injured when he was climbing and jumping over a fence during play time.  He attempted to climb and jump the fence to retrieve a ball. As he was getting over the top of the fence, his fan was caught on one of the metal spikes and he suffered a serious injury to the hand. You can read more about this particular incident at Child Suffers Injury Due to Fence at School – Plastic Surgery and Other Medical Care Needed. 
If a child is injured as a result of a lack of supervision even if the child put himself or herself in danger, a case or claim can still be pursued.  Due to the intricacies of Florida law and the challenges to most injury cases, a parent should contact a Florida Child Injury Attorney for advice, consultation, guidance, and legal representation.
The book titled – The ABCs of Child Injury – Legal Rights of the Injured Child – Legal Rights of the Injured Child – has chapters on School Injuries, Day Care Center Injuries, Theme Park and Attraction Injuries,  Homeonwers’ s Insurance, Shopping Center Injuries,  and other topics.  You can get this book for free at The ABCs of Child Injury. 

Florida Day Care Center Book.001In Florida day care centers as well as day care centers throughout the nation, there is a common risk present no matter the size or type of day care centers.   This is the risk of choking on small objects.   It is well known that children are curious. Furthermore, children have poor safety awareness especially when it comes to putting objects in the mouth like toy parts, household items, and coins.  Furthermore, some foods are notoriously dangerous to toddlers and infants like hot dogs, grapes, hard vegetables and fruits, and other items.  Because of the known risks of chocking, day care centers have a duty and responsibility to keep all hazardous items away from the reach of children.   It is acceptable for a day care center to keep change / coins not he premises but it is quite another thing if the coins are within the reach of children.  It is certainly quite worse even if the children (toddlers and infants) are given coins or other small objects to play with.   One coin or small hard object can lead to a choking incident which, in turn, can cause serious personal injuries, brain injuries, and even death.
Let’s take a look at another example.  A 2 year old is playing with legos in the day care center. The lego set is recommended for children 4 and older.   There are a number of small pieces that the child has access to in the lego box.   The child puts one of the small pieces in his mouth and chokes on the object.  Fire rescue is called and the child is rushed to the hospital.  The child is in ICU for 10 days.  The child ultimately recovered from the incident but only have 6 months of treatment and care.   The whole incident and resulting damages and harm could have been avoided with better supervision and with the removal of the dangerous items from the reach of this 2 year old child. 
The book – Florida Day Care Center Injuries – Legal Rights of the Injured Child – Building Blocks of Knowledge for Parents – has sections on Supervision, Incident Reports, Emergency Procedures, Indoor Facilities, Outdoor Facilities, and other topics. You can get this book for free at Florida Day Care Center Injuries.  

Play Time Written In Multicolored Plastic Kids Letters

Play Time at Day Care Centers, Schools, and Summer Camp

At most playgrounds, it is common to see a slide.  Children often enjoy playing on playgrounds and especially the joy and thrill of climbing up a slide and then sliding down.  If the slide is age appropriate and used correctly, most injuries from playground slides are avoided.   This also assumes that there is sufficient and reasonable supervision in place for all of the children on the playground including but not limited to the slide area – ladder, levels, slide, and landing.  Unfortunately, for some children, the playground slide is the location of a serious personal injury.   When a child is injured on a playground, the day care center, summer camp, property owner, school, or city / county entity may be liable for the resulting injuries and damages.   The liability or responsibility will depend on the ability to prove the four essential elements of a civil case or claim:

1. Duty;
2. Breach of Duty;
3. Causation; and
4. Damages.
Here are a couple of examples which could form the basis of a case in establishing each of the above elements.
Larger / Older Child or Adult Slides Down Slide with Child
One very dangerous thing to do is to slide down a slide with a child.   This can lead to serious injuries including but not limited to leg fractures.  If the rubber from the child’s shoe gets stuck on the slide on the way down, the weight of the adult or older child may, in turn, cause the leg to fracture.  If the child is too young or small to go down the slide on his or her own, it is advisable to avoid the slide for that child.  This same child may also lack the motor skills and judgment to be able to safety climb the stairs and / or platforms to get to the slide.
Child Suffers Burn Injuries from Use of Slide on a Hot Day
The child care providers should inspect all equipment prior to use.  The property owners should also use the best efforts to only place safe equipment on the playground.  If the equipment like the slide is prone to get hot on a frequent basis in which it caused burn injuries, the slide in question may need to be replaced or just simply removed.  Burn injuries are avoided with better equipment selection and installation OR with better supervision.
Child Slides Down Head First on the Slide
Here is another example in which the school, summer camp, or day care center can be held liable.  It is the duty and responsibility to provide supervision on the playground to make sure that the children properly use the equipment. It is well known that children lack good judgment.  As such, child care providers should be diligent while watching the children and make sure that any dangerous activities or use are prohibited and dealt with in a timely fashion.  Rules should be made clear to all of the children.  Any child disobeying the rules should be removed from the playground immediately in order to make the point clear to the other children that unsafe play or actions will not be tolerated.
The above are just a few examples.  It should be noted and emphasized that each potential case should be evaluated on its own facts and merits.  In some instances, the injury is unfortunate but not necessarily actionable.  Again, it will depend on the particular facts that led to the injury.
The book titled – The ABCs of Child Injury – Legal Rights of the Injured Child – What Every Parent Should Know – has chapters on Playground Injuries, Day Care Center Injuries, School Injuries, and other topics. You can get his book for free at The ABCs of Child Injury.

NX_dog_pointer_headprofileIn every Florida community, there are dogs. A dog is commonly referred to as man’s best friend. Dogs are wonderful companions and considered part of the family. Unfortunately for some children, a dog can be viewed as a mean and vicious animal that is dangerous.   A child can be significantly traumatized as a result of a dog bite or dog attack. Some dogs are vicious by nature. Some unfortunately are taught to be vicious.  Most domestic dogs are kind animals but, as animals, a bite or attack can still happen at any time.  A dog could get scared or agitated by a certain sound or smell.  Some dogs, for reasons unknown, just do not like children.  As smart as dogs can be, they are still animals that, at times, take action to protect themselves or protect their owners if they feel threatened in a certain manner.   For some dog owners, the fact that the dog bit or attacked a person comes as a total surprise. For others, it is no surprise at all since the dog previously attacked or bit a person.   
Florida, like some other states, has a strict liability law in place for dog bites or dog attacks.  Prior notice of aggressive behavior is not a requisite to pursue a claim or case.   A dog bite victim need only show that a dog attack took place.  There are some limited exceptions to this general law or rule. For instance, if the child is a trespasser who then is bitten, there may be a defense to an action or a case brought on behalf of the dog bite victim. 
Section 767.04, Florida Statutes provides the following:
767.04 Dog owner’s liability for damages to persons bitten.The owner of any dog that bites any person while such person is on or in a public place, or lawfully on or in a private place, including the property of the owner of the dog, is liable for damages suffered by persons bitten, regardless of the former viciousness of the dog or the owners’ knowledge of such viciousness. However, any negligence on the part of the person bitten that is a proximate cause of the biting incident reduces the liability of the owner of the dog by the percentage that the bitten person’s negligence contributed to the biting incident. A person is lawfully upon private property of such owner within the meaning of this act when the person is on such property in the performance of any duty imposed upon him or her by the laws of this state or by the laws or postal regulations of the United States, or when the person is on such property upon invitation, expressed or implied, of the owner. However, the owner is not liable, except as to a person under the age of 6, or unless the damages are proximately caused by a negligent act or omission of the owner, if at the time of any such injury the owner had displayed in a prominent place on his or her premises a sign easily readable including the words “Bad Dog.” The remedy provided by this section is in addition to and cumulative with any other remedy provided by statute or common law. History.s. 1, ch. 25109, 1949; s. 1, ch. 93-13; s. 1155, ch. 97-102.
The entitlement to compensation should not be confused with the practicality of collecting against the dog owner or property owner.   A child may be entitled to compensation but if the dog owner has no assets and no applicable homeowner’s coverage – it may prove to be quite difficult to collect a settlement or judgment against the dog owner. 
If there is homeowner’s insurance coverage or liability insurance coverage in place, a child can then most likely collect damages for economic damages (medical bills, lost wages of the child (if any), lost wage of the parent (if any), and future medical bills) and non-economic damages (pain, suffering, loss of enjoyment of life, and mental anguish).  Insurance companies are well represented by attorneys and adjusters.   Because of this, a parent should hire a Florida Child Injury Lawyer to advocate for and represent the interests of the minor child.   Like other child injury cases, the attorney and parents have a duty to act in the best interests of the child.
The book titled – The ABCs of Child Injury – Legal Rights of the Injured Child – What Every Parent Should Know – has chapters on Dog Bite Injuries, Playground Injuries, and other topics.  You can get this book for free at The ABCs of Child Injury.

Parents work tirelessly to raise and mentor their children.   Parents make sacrifices every day to provide for the health, safety, and welfare of their children.  During the infant and toddler years, parents or appropriate care providers are typically with the child at all times.  As a child grows older, it is not practical, possible, or necessary for a parent to be that 24 / 7 protector of their children.  As a child grows older, we, as parents, cannot be everything for our children.  They must and do venture out in the world.   As teenagers, parents still provide for their children and serve as guides and mentors.  When a teen is away from a parent on a short trip or a long one, a parent will worry but, again, cannot be there at all times.  Tragically, many teens die as a result of Florida Automobile Accidents on a far too frequent basis.  Through no fault of the teen victim, a life is lost due to the negligence or carelessness of another driver.  The at-fault driver may be another teen driver, an adult driver, a commercial driver, truck driver, etc. . .  No matter the identity of the at-fault driver or at-fault owner of the automobile, truck or vehicle, a teen’s life is lost and parents will grieve after the accident and for a lifetime for that matter.
It is interesting to note that in the English dictionary there is no word designated for a parent who loses a child.  When a man loses his wife, he is a widower. When a wife loses her husband, she is a widow.  When a child loses his parents, he is an orphan; however, when a parent loses a child, there is no word to describe the parents. Furthermore, the pain in losing a child is indescribable.
Certainly, the first thought that enters a parent’s head following the death of a child is not “Let’s get an attorney.”   It is more common and natural for a parent to be in shock and a loss for word or rational thought.   Questions that commonly arise include the following:  What happened?  How could this be?  Is this a nightmare?  Is this a mistake?  Could my child really be gone?  
Following the death of a child, final arrangements will need to be made and, at some point in time, the parents, another family member, or close family friend may decide to seek out a Florida Child Injury Lawyer for advice, consultation, and potential legal representation.  When a child / teen dies as a result of a Florida Automobile Accident, the case or claim is subject to the Florida Wrongful Death Act which is government under Chapter 768, Florida Statutes.  Wrongful death cases are handled differently than other types of personal injury cases. There are formalities and procedures unique to Florida Wrongful Death Cases.   
One point that is not generally known or understood by many people is the fact that the pain, suffering, and mental anguish of a wrongful death cases are limited to the parents and children of the deceased teen.   The pain and suffering of the teen prior to his or her death is not technically counted as an element of damages in a Florida Wrongful Death Case.  Furthermore, the duration of damages considered is not the duration of the child’s expected life span if the incident did not take plan.  The duration of damages is the time period in which the parent and child would have lived together. In other words, let’s say a 15 year old teen dies.  The father of the teen is 45 years old and has a life expectancy of 35 years.   Under this basis fact scenario, the future damages could include the next 35 years because that represents the time period that the father and child could have spent together assuming that child would have lived that long as well.  If the child had some kind of pre-existing condition or ailment that would have made his life expectancy less than that of the father’s, then the number of years of future damages for the pain and suffering of the parent would be less.  As you can see, the nuances of damages the Florida Wrongful Death Act can be quite confusing.  As such, it makes sense to a parent to contact a Florida Child Injury Lawyer when needing advice, guidance, and legal representation regarding these matters.
The book – When a Parent’s World Goes From Full to Empty – The Wrongful Death of a Child – What You Need to Know About the Florida Wrongful Death Act – has chapters on Damages, Compensation, Life Expectancy, and other topics. You can get this book for free at From Full to Empty. 

Hotel Negligence Personal InjuriesFlorida is a tourist state in many respects. During the summer months when children are out of school, it is  common to see children and their families visiting and enjoying the amenities at various Florida resorts and hotels. From Key West to Orlando to Jacksonville to Pensacola and all parts in between, children are welcome as guests at hotels and resorts.  For some children during these visits, a hotel / resort is the location of a serious personal injury and even death in some circumstances. Is a hotel liable “every time” that a child is injured on premises? The simple answer to this question is no. The reason the answer is simple is because the way to which the question is asked. Take note of the words “every time”. A hotel or resort in Florida is not liable “every time” that a child is injured. However,  a hotel or resort is  liable when the hotel / resort is negligent or careless with respect to the supervision and maintenance of the facility. In order to establish a civil case or claim against a hotel or resort, the following four elements must be established:
1. Duty;
2. Breach of Duty;
3. Causation; and
4. Damages.
Let’s take a look at a potential case that could be brought against a Florida hotel or resort. Let’s say that a child is in the lobby of the hotel. Approximately a half hour before the child entered the lobby and employee while cleaning the common area breaks a glass vase and then takes a lunch break.  The employee cleaned up some of the glass but left large pieces behind and did not put put any cones or warning signs about the ear.  The child enters the lobby as he was heading off to the pool area. The child is walking in his bare feet.   While walking in the lobby, the child steps on one of the large pieces of clear glass and lacerates the bottom of his foot.   He begins to profusely bleed and requires fire rescue transport to the local ER where he is treated and 20 stitches are needed.
Through this fact scenario, it can be shown that the hotel in a duty to reasonably maintain the premises. The hotel breached this duty when its employee left behind large pieces of glass on the lobby floor.  This, in turn, was the proximate cause of damages (injuries) to the child.  It should be clarified that notice is an important part of most premises liability case against hotels and resorts. Did the hotel know about the dangerous condition? Was the injury that was caused foreseeable? Certainly, in the case example as outlined above, the employee knew that glass broke and failed to carefully and reasonably clean up the area of the mess / broken glass.
The book titled The ABCs of Child Injury – Legal Rights of the Injured Child – What Every Parent Should Know – has chapters on Shopping Center Injuries, Amusement and Theme Park Injuries, Water Park and Swimming Injuries, and other topics. You can get this book for free at The ABCs of Child Injury.

Carousel Personal InjuryEvery year, millions of children visit Florida theme parks, water parks, amusement parks, and attractions. For most people, the experience is a positive one but maybe expensive and hot at times, visit to a theme park or waterpark often leads to memories at last a lifetime. Unfortunately for some children water parks theme parks are also the sites of serious personal injuries. Some children even die while visiting a theme parks, amusement park, attraction, or water park.  What are the legal rights of the child or family of a child when there is an injury to a child at one of these Florida vacation spots or attractions?  It should be noted that theme parks and other property owners, management companies, and tenants are no absolute insurers of the safety of a child.  In other words, just becase an injury takes place on premises does not mean that the owner, operator, or management company is liable for the injury sustained by the child. Each case should be should be evaluated on its own facts and circumstances.
Here are some questions arise when a child suffers personal injuries at a  theme park, attraction, amusement park, or water park.
What were the circumstances leading to the injury?
What kind of supervision was in place?
Was the child  with his parents, friends, family members, a summer camp school or day care center?
Was there an adequate adequate amount of supervision for the child?
Was the theme park properly maintained and in good repair?
Was the area in question maintained in a reasoanble safe manner?
Weere their frequent expect inspections of the area in question?
Was the area where the injury took place dangerous in nature?
What safety measures were  in place in order to prevent injury?
What notice or knowledge did the facility have about the dangers of the area in question?
What injuries were sustained by the child?
Did the child and/or the child’s parents / supervisors know about the dangerous area before the incident took place?
These and many other questions arise when a child suffers personal injury.  Because of the multitude of questions and the complexities of insurance claims and legal cases, it make sense for a parent to consult with a Florida Child Injury Lawyer for advice, guidance, and if appropriate legal representation.  The book titled – The ABCs of Child Injury – Legal Rights of the Injured Child – What Every Parent Should Know – has chapters on Amusement Park and Theme Park Injuries, Day Care Center Injuries, Playground Injuries, and other topics. You can get this book for free at The ABCs of Child Injury.

Ambulance on Blue BackgroundFlorida roads, highways, and streets are far too often the locations of tragic automobile and trucking accidents.  Whenever there is a death on Florida roadways, the lives of surviving family members, friends, and neighbors are forever changed. There is a certain ripple effect from the death of even one person who untimely dies as a result of the careless driving of another person.   In Green Cove Springs (Clay County), Florida, there was a tragic accident reported in which 5 people died and 2 children were injured.  The Florida Highway Patrol reported that one driver drove over the double yellow lines and into the right of way of the there driver.  A fatal head on accident resulted with just tragic results. You can read more about this story at Fatal Accident Reported in Green Cove Springs, Florida. 
When a death is caused by the negligence or fault of another person, entity, or business in Florida, a wrongful death case can be pursued under Chapter 768, Florida Statutes.  It should be noted that when a person dies in the State of Florida, the civil lawsuit focuses on the loss, pain, and suffering on the surviving family member which may include a parent, child, or both.   Certainly, a person who dies as a result of an accident may have suffered extreme pain prior to death. There may have been an extended hospitalization leading to death.  However, once the person dies, the type of case that is pursued is a Florida Wrongful Death case assuming that the death was proximately caused by the trauma from the automobile accident or trucking accident. 
There are many twists and turns to the pursuit of a Florida Wrongful Death Case.  Because of this, it makes sense for family members to consult a Florida Personal Injury Attorney for advice, consultation, and legal representation.  The book titled – When a Parent’s World Goes From Full to Empty – The Wrongful Death of a Child – What You Need to Know About the Florida Wrongful Death Act.  The book has sections on Personal Representative, Settlement / Compensation, Damages, and other topics. You can get this book for free at From Full to Empty